Language Models for IR


  1. LM.1 Overview
  2. LM.2 What is a language model?
  3. LM.3 Query likelihood ranking
  4. LM.4 The unigram model (urn model)
  5. LM.5 Zero-frequency problem
  6. LM.6 Laplace correction and absolute discounting
  7. LM.7 Good-Turing estimate
  8. LM.8 Interpolation with background model
  9. LM.9 Jelinek-Mercer smoothing
  10. LM.10 Dirichlet smoothing
  11. LM.11 Leave-one-out smoothing
  12. LM.12 Smoothing and inverse document frequency
  13. LM.13 Language model ranking formula
  14. LM.14 Issues to consider